Introduction For A Cse Style Research Paper

End references & examples

  • Below are examples for formatting different kinds of materials as end references.
  • The numbers in each heading, such as 29.3.7, refer to sections within the CSE Manual, so, for additional explanation, go to the designated section of the Manual.


 Journal Articles

  •  Journal article -- print: 29.3.7.1

   with persons as authors

    Tripp S, London T, Spend DT. 2005. Greeting the protein. J Growth. 10(9):2022-2030.


    with organization as author

    [NIH] National Institutes of Health (US), Task Force on Trauma. 1996. Ending confusion. Trauma Care. 202(2):123-134.


    with more than 10 authors [include first 10 authors, followed by “et al.”]

    Malarta G, Tubbs K, Brighton E, Ballard D, Kali J, Franks BB, Ziegler B, Creighton V, Jenks Q, Peters D, et al. 2007. Investigating Pain. N Eng J Med. 45(1):62-78.
 

  • Journal article on the internet: 29.3.7.13  

    Add the following elements to the journal citation:

            ... the Internet designation [Internet],
            ... revision dates of the content [updated 2007 Jan 12],
            ... when the item was accessed [cited 2007 Feb 20], and
            ... where the item can be found [Available from: ....].


    If a direct URL to the item is not available, give instructions to the item from the URL as in the Malarta citation below.

    examples:

    Tripp S, London T, Spend DT. 2005. Greeting the protein. J Growth [Internet]. [revised 2006 Dec 1; cited 2007 Feb 20]; 10(9):2022-2030. Available from: http://www.growth.com/2005109/tripp.htm

    [NIH] National Institutes of Health (US), Task Force on Trauma. 1996. Ending confusion. Trauma Care [Internet]. [cited 2007 Feb 20]; 202(2):123-134. Available from: http://www.traumacare.com/reprints/1996/201/2/nihtft.htm

    Malarta G, Tubbs K, Brighton E, Ballard D, Kali J, Franks BB, Ziegler B, Creighton V, Jenks Q, Peters D, et al. 2007. Investigating Pain. N Eng J Med [Internet]. [cited 2007 Feb 20]; 45(1):62-78. Available from: http://nejm.com/pubs/ after clicking on the Year link.
 

  • Journal article in a library database: see NLM Internet Formats, p. 62 for additional information


Details:

  ...If a URL will lead directly to the article, use the URL in “Available from.”  When there is no direct URL to the item, use the database’s URL such as http://www.proquest.com or http://www.ebsco.com
...Add the document ID or document accession number after the “Available from” URL.
...For more information, see the National Library of Medicine Internet Formats Supplement: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/pubs/formats/internet.pdf


with authors


    Tripp S, London T, Spend DT. 2005. Greeting the protein. J Growth. 10(9):2022-2030. In: EBSCOhost Academic Search Premier [Internet]. Birmingham (AL): EBSCO Industries; [cited 2007 Feb 20].  Available from: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=23886517&site=ehost-live; Accession No.: 23886517.

    [NIH] National Institutes of Health (US), Task Force on Trauma. 1996. Ending confusion. Trauma Care. 202(2):123-134. In: PubMed [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); [cited 2001 Apr 9]. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/PubMed; PMID: 11286953.

    Malarta G, Tubbs K, Brighton E, Ballard D, Kali J, Franks BB, Ziegler B, Creighton V, Jenks Q, Peters D, et al. 2007. Investigating Pain. N Eng J Med. 45(1):62-78. In: Proquest Research Library [Internet]. Ann Arbor (MI): Proquest-CSA; [cited 2007 Feb 20]. Available from: http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1174260951&sid=1&Fmt=2&clientId=18865
    &RQT=309&VName=PQD; Document ID: 1174260951.


with no author


    Are you poisoning your kid? A new study shows high levels of pesticides in children who don’t eat organic. 2003. Natural Health. 33(5):26. In:  Infotrac/Expanded Academic ASAP [Internet]. [place unknown]: The Gale Group, Inc.; [cited 2007 Feb 20]. Available from: http://web1.infotrac.galegroup.com; Article No.: A104079955.
 

Books
 

                  examples:

    Bennett G. 1962. Management of artificial lakes and ponds. New York (NY): Reinhold Publishing Corporation.

    Dobie J, Moyle JB. 1962. Methods used for investigating productivity of fish-rearing ponds in Minnesota. [St Paul (MN)]: [publisher unknown].
 

  • Book on the internet [See CSE Manual section 29.3.7.13 for e-books]

 

  • Book in a research database [Construct citation by locating information to cite it as if it were a print book; then add to it the additional information needed for Internet items found in section 29.3.7.13]

 

  • Parts of Books & Contributions to Books [See CSE Manual section 29.3.7.2.10 for parts of books. If item is online or in a research database, add the additional information needed for Internet items as found in section 29.3.7.13]


Definitions:

... When written or composed by the author or one of the authors of a book, the chapter, section, table, chart, graph, etc. is considered part of a book
... When written by someone other than the author or one of the authors, chapters, sections, tables, etc. are considered contributions to the book
 

Parts of or contributions to books -- print


part of a book

    Cross TU, Rollins Q, Barnes G, editors. 2000. Dictionary of biological terms. 5th ed. Boston (MA): Dolin Publications. Antacid; p. 9.

    Twindler M. 2002. Drawing conclusions. New York (NY): Brown Pubs. Chapter 12, Logical connections; p. 199-224.
   

contribution to a book

Britt KA. 2006. Hormones. In: Kline E, Frick P, Camp D, editors. Encyclopedia of Science. Boston (MA: Dexter Pub. p. 198-200.
 

Parts of or contributions to books -- Internet

 
 

Parts of or contributions to books -- in research database


 contribution examples

    O’Connor D. 2002 Aug 16. Stream pollution. In: Access science: the online encyclopedia of science & technology [Internet]. [place unknown]: McGraw-Hill; c2007; [cited 2007 Feb 20]. Available from: http://www.accessscience.com

   Hartley AM. 2002 Jan 8. Buffers (chemistry). In: Access science: the online encyclopedia of science & technology [Internet]. [place unknown]: McGraw-Hill; c2007; [cited 2007 Feb 20]. Available from: http://www.accessscience.com; DOI 10.1036/1097-8542.098625.

    Uretsky S. 2006. Antacids. In: Gale encyclopedia of medicine [Internet]. 3rd ed. Detroit (MI): Gale; [cited 2007 Feb 20]. p 231-233. Available from Gale Virtual Reference Library; http://find.galegroup.com/gvrl/start.do?prodId=GVRL&userGroupName=sdln_dsu; Document No.: CX3451600106.



 part example

    Access science: the online encyclopedia of science & technology [Internet]. c2007. [place unknown]: McGraw-Hill; [cited 2007 Feb 20]. Buffer; [about 1 paragraph]. Available from: http://www.accessscience.com
 


Technical Reports

  •     example:


    Reilly MH. 1979. Equations of powered rocket ascent and orbit trajectory. Washington (DC): Naval Research Laboratory (US). Report No: 8237.


Homepages and Websites


    MedlinePLUS: Drugs and Supplements [Internet]. 2007. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US) and National Institutes of Health (US); [last updated 2007 Jan 31; cited 2007 Feb 20]. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginformation.html

    PDRHealth [Internet]. c2006. [place unknown]: Thomson Healthcare; [cited 2007 Feb 20]. Available from: http://www.pdrhealth.com/

    Johnson Matthey Co -- calcium carbonate, 12365 -- 6810-00N084326. 1996 Mar 22. In: SIRI/MSDS Index [Internet]. [place unknown]: Vermont Safety Information Resources; [cited 2007 Feb 20]. Available from: http://hazard.com/msds/f2/cgs/cgsrs.html

 

  • Parts of or Contributions to Websites


   Definitions:

... When written or composed by the author or organization providing the website, it is considered a part
... When written by someone other than the author or organization providing the website, it is considered a contribution


  parts examples

    MedlinePLUS: Drugs and Supplements [Internet]. c2006. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US) and National Institutes of Health (US). Antacids (Oral); revised 1996 Jul 18 [cited 2007 Feb 20]. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/uspdi/202047.html

    PDRHealth [Internet]. c2006. [place unknown]: Thomson Healthcare. Rolaids; [date unknown] [cited 2007 Feb 20]. Available from: http://www.pdrhealth.com/drug_info/otcdrugprofiles/drugs/fgotc216.shtml

After all the hard work you've put into researching and writing, spending extra time formatting your paper might not seem all that necessary. Things like citations, margins, and spacing don't seem nearly that important compared to what's actually in your paper, and sorting through the dozens of citations styles and formatting rules can be an irritating task. But as annoying as they may be, those formatting guidelines are an important part of turning in a complete research paper: your professor will notice if you've paid attention to the details, and if you plan to publish in the future than these rules are a must.

Council of Science Editors (CSE)/Council of Biology Editors (CBE)

The Council for Science Editors (CSE) is a trade organization for editorial professionals working in the sciences. They publish Scientific Style and Format: The CSE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers which is the style guide used by many working in biology. (The organization was started in 1957 as the Council of Biological Editors, CBE, which is why the style is sometimes referred to as CBE.) There are a number of other styles used in the natural sciences, particularly in medicine, so if you're working on a paper for one of these classes make sure to check with your teacher about which style guide to use.

The Basics

Here are the basics you need to know for formatting your paper:

  • Margins. Use 1" margins on all four sides of the page.
  • Indentation. Indent the start of a paragraph 1/2 inch from the left margin; indent block quotations 1/2 inch as well. The reference page should use a hanging indent, meaning all lines of a bibliographic entry after the first are indented 1/2 inch.
  • Font. The CSE style manual does not require any specific font, but in general it's a good idea to use an easily readable font like 12-point Times New Roman or Arial.
  • Page numbers. Number pages consecutively in the upper right-hand corner starting with the number two on the page immediately following the title page.
  • Spacing. Double space the entire paper including the References page and block quotes.
  • Title page. The title page should include the title of paper centered on the page, your name centered three quarters of the way down the page, and the class, professor's name, and date centered at the bottom. The title page should not include a header or page number.
  • Running heads. A shortened version of the title should be included in the header immediately before the page number in the upper right corner starting on the page after the title page (which should be numbered as page 2).

Common Spelling, Grammar, and Punctuation Issues

Numbers

In general, numerals should be used for all numbers except zero and one, which should be spelled out. Words should only be used for:

  • numbers that start a sentence ("Eighty-six students participated in the study.")
  • fractions less than one (two-thirds, three-quarters)
  • single-digit ordinal (seventh, third).

Headings

Main headings (abstract, introduction, methods, etc.) should be centered and in all caps. Headings should be double-spaced with the rest of the paper. The CSE manual encourages the use of subheadings to separate ideas within sections. Subheadings should be centered, in italics, and in sentence case (meaning only the first letter of the subheading is capitalized).

Serial comma

The CSE manual requires the use of the serial comma (the comma that comes before the conjunction in a series, for example "We need to buy bread, milk, and butter.").

Foreign words

Foreign words that are not commonly used in English should be italicized.

Organization

Research papers formatting using the CSE manual should include sections with the following titles: Abstract, Introduction, Methods (or Materials and Methods), Results, Discussion, References (or Cited References). The paper can have subheadings within each of these sections, but these six should be the only main headings. There's no standardized headings for papers that are not presenting the results of original research.

Tables and Figures

Tables and figures should be placed either at the top or bottom of the page as close as possible to where they are mentioned in the text. They should be labeled in sequentially in two separate groups (meaning the first table is labeled Table 1, the second Table 2, etc. and the first figure is labeled Figure 1, the second Figure 2, etc.). References to figures should be in parenthesis, and the word figures can be listed whole or abbreviated as fig (e.g., see Figure 1; Fig. 4). The sources for figures should be given in the figure description and not as a citation. Tables should be given a short title, with the number and title listed above the table. Figures should include a description given below the figure.

Citations

The CSE manual lets you choose between two different citation styles: citation-sequence and name-year.

Citation-sequence

When using the citation-sequence style, sources are cited by including a number either in superscript or parenthesis after the cited material. Numbers should be listed in order starting with one, with each number referring to the corresponding entry on the References page.

A paragraph in the citation-sequence style would look like this:

Several species have been found to rely on S. alternaflora for food, including Snow Geese1 and several kinds of snails.2,3S. alternaflora is also important for building a strong marsh ecosystem. It traps sediment and debris, gradually building embankments where other species, such as mussels, will settle.4 In hybridized form, S. alternaflora can become invasive.3

Note that more than one reference can be included together, and that when a work is referred to after it's already been cited, it should be cited with the same number as was listed earlier.

The References page will list all the bibliographic information for your sources. Entries should be numbered to correspond with the numbers cited in the text. Examples of entries from several common types of sources are below. When the source is quoted directly in the text, the page number is added to the end of the entry.

Book with one author

1. Lopez, AC. Plants of the northern shore. New York (NY): Random House; 1956.

*Note: Only the first word of book and article titles should be capitalized.

Book with two authors

2. Walken, SK, Underwood, JP. American songbirds. New York (NY): Nature Publishers; 1997.

Chapter in a book

3. Xee, QI. The history of wetland rehabilitation. In: Reckets, JA, Erond, ST, editors. How to rebuild a wetland. Chicago (IL): University of Chicago Press; 2005.

Book read online/ebook

4. Walken, SK, Underwood, JP. American songbirds. [Internet]. New York: Nature Publishers; 1997. [cited 2013 Jan 25]. Available from: http://naturepublishers.com/americansongbirds.

Journal article

5. Wojnick, BL, Appleshaw, KR. Effect of industrial pollution on wetlands. Ecol Envir. 2001;16(2): 135-147.

*Note: Journal titles in CSE citations are abbreviated. You can look here for a list of journal title abbreviations.

Website

6. Common Songbirds [Internet]. Boston: Songbird Society of New England, 16 June 2006 [cited 2011 Aug 6]. Available from http://SSNE.org/commonsongbirds.

Name-year

The CSE manual also allows you to cite sources using the authors name and the publication year in parenthesis, a style similar to that used in other formatting guides like MLA and APA.

A paragraph with in-text citations that uses the name-year system would look like this:

Several species have been found to rely on S. alternaflora for food, including Snow Geese and several kinds of snails (Walken 1996; Alwood 1998). S. alternaflora is also important for building a strong marsh ecosystem. It traps sediment and debris, gradually building embankments where other species, such as mussels, will settle (Weston, 2006). Walken (1996) also showed that in hybridized form, S. alternaflora can become invasive.

When a source is quoted directly, the page number should be included in the parenthesis, for example (Alwood 1998, p 127).

All cited sources should be collected as an alphabetical (by author's late name) list under the heading Cited References. Examples of entries for common types of sources are below. Note that the entries are the same as those for the citation-sequence style, except for the date, which has been moved to directly follow the author's name. Also note that the references in the author-year system are not numbered.

Book with one author

Lopez, AC. 1956. Plants of the northern shore. New York (NY): Random House.

Book with two authors

Walken, SK, Underwood, JP. 1997. American songbirds. New York (NY): Nature Publishers.

Chapter in a book

Xee, QI. 2005. The history of wetland rehabilitation. In: Reckets, JA, Erond, ST, editors. How to rebuild a wetland. Chicago (IL): University of Chicago Press.

Book read online/ebook

Walken, SK, Underwood, JP. 1997. American songbirds. [Internet]. New York: Nature Publishers. [cited 2013 Jan 25]. Available from: http://naturepublishers.com/americansongbirds.

Journal article

Wojnick, BL, Appleshaw, KR. 2001. Effect of industrial pollution on wetlands. Ecol Envir. 16(2): 135-147.

Website

Common Songbirds [Internet]. 2006. Boston: Songbird Society of New England. [cited 2011 Aug 6]. Available from http://SSNE.org/commonsongbirds.

One thought on “Introduction For A Cse Style Research Paper

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *